Henry David Thoreau was a man with a different perspective on life. He spent 26 months of his life living alone in a shack he built near Walden pond. He supposedly took up this lifestyle to learn more about the simple lessons and messages of life, away from the world of business. He never married, nor did he have any children, after his venture on Walden pond he went to work at his family’s factory. Personally, I found his autobiography, so far, to be hard to read, and often my mind wondered away. He spent 8 years writing this book, I respect his dedication, but honestly he could have done a much better job of organizing it and making it easier for the reader to follow. Perhaps that is why this book got hardly any attention at first, it was not until he died that there was any real popularity.
So to answer the original question, yes, Thoreau was dependent on the division of labor while he was living on Walden pond. To begin with, he bought all of the supplies to build his house from a store. Stores must be owned and run by someone, all of the merchandise comes from factories which are operated by members of the division of labor. Also, he states that he paid $28.12 1/2 for all of the supplies, this is money he must have earned prior to his stay at Walden pond, which means he depended on the division of labor to convert to this lifestyle.
Later, he returns to the store to buy common foods that most people find pleasurable. Those things are produced by laborers, they are sold by laborers. He depended heavily on the division of labor. Honestly, I do not think he would have survived without it. If he did, it would have been a rough experience for a man like him. He also states that he dined out occasionally, I assume he is referring to a restaurant, if not, he must have meant something similar, this was not a hermit lifestyle.
He spoke of fishing. Yes, it is possible to make your own gear to fish with, many people have, and still do. You do not need to buy a rod, or line, or even hooks, but I highly doubt that he made all of his own fishing aids. These are things he probably purchased, not necessarily, but I doubt he made everything out of natural materials. He also bought clothing and household items, again, the system is simple, in order to get that stuff without making the materials and the items, the division of labor must exist.
He planted crops to earn money to pay for the items listed above, this, again, shows that he depended on the division of labor.
He was not a fan of the common workforce. To briefly assess it, he thought of it as men slowly working themselves into the grave. He was against the factory system, but after his 26 month stay, he returned to work at his family’s pencil factory.